Education research. Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it.

Science and technology have had enormous impact on many areas of human endeavor but surprisingly little effect on education. Many large-scale field trials of science-based innovations in education have yielded scant evidence of improvement in student learning (1, 2), although a few have reliable positive outcomes (3, 4). Education involves many important issues, such as cultural questions of values, but we focus on instructional decision-making in the context of determined instructional goals and suggests ways to manage instructional complexity.