Friedel Oscillation-Induced Energy Gap Manifested as Transport Asymmetry at Monolayer-Bilayer Graphene Boundaries

<p>We show that Friedel charge oscillation near an interface opens a gap at the Fermi energy for electrons with wave vectors perpendicular to the interface. If the Friedel gaps on two sides of the interface are different, a nonequilibrium effect—shifting of these gaps under bias—leads to asymmetric transport upon reversing the bias polarity. The predicted transport asymmetry is revealed by scanning tunneling potentiometry at monolayer-bilayer interfaces in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001). This intriguing interfacial transport behavior opens a new avenue toward novel quantum functions such as quantum switching.</p>