Generating complex three-dimensional stimuli (Greebles) for haptic expertise training

An apparatus is described that accurately measures response times and video records hand movements during haptic object recognition using complex three-dimensional (3-D) forms. The apparatus was used for training participants to become expert at perceptual judgments of 3-D objects (Greebles) using only their sense of touch. Inspiration came from previous visual experiments, and therefore training and testing protocols that were similar to the earlier visual procedures were used. Two sets of Greebles were created. One set (clay Greebles) was hand crafted from clay, and the other (plastic Greebles) was machine created using rapid prototyping technology. Differences between these object creation techniques and their impact on perceptual expertise training are discussed. The full set of these stimuli may be downloaded from