After decades of lobbying by environmentalists and extensive implementation of voluntary programs, municipal solid waste (MSW) recycling recently received widespread official acceptance. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a national goal that 25% of MSW be recycled. Forty-one states plus the District of Columbia have set recycling goals that range up to 70%. Twenty-nine states require municipalities or counties to enact recycling ordinances or to develop recycling programs. Before celebrating this achievement. however, we need to take a hard look at the price of victory and the value of the spoils.