Improving Speech-Recognition Performance via Phone-Dependent VQ Codebooks and Adaptive Language Models in SPHINX-II
This paper presents improvements in acoustic and language modeling for automatic speech recognition. Specifically, semi-continuous HMMs (SCHMMs) with phone-dependent VQ codebooks are presented and incorporated into the SPHINX-II speech recognition system. The phone-dependent VQ codebooks relax the density-tying constraint in SCHMMs in order to obtain more detailed models. A 6% error rate reduction was achieved on the speaker-independent 20000-word Wall Street Journal (WSJ) task. Dynamic adaptation of the language model in the context of long documents is also explored. A maximum entropy framework is used to exploit long distance trigrams and trigger effects. A 10%-15% word error rate reduction is reported on the same WSJ task using the adaptive language modeling technique.