Experimental verification of the feasibility of the cardiovascular impedance simulator.

Mock circulatory systems (MCS) are often used for the development of cardiovascular devices and for the study of the dynamics of blood flow through the cardiovascular system. However, conventional MCS suffer from the repeatability, flexibility, and precision problems because they are typically built up with passive and linear fluidic elements such as compliance chamber, manual valve, and tube. To solve these limitations, we have developed an impedance simulator, comprised of a feedback-controlled positive displacement pump that is capable of generating analogous dynamic characteristics as the conventional fluidic elements would generate, thereby replacing the conventional passive fluidic elements that often cause problems. The impedance simulator is experimentally proven to reproduce the impedance of the various discrete elements, such as resistance and compliance of the cardiovascular system model, as well as the combined impedances of them.