Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
MY INTERPRETATIVE ESSAY on "Keynes's General Theory" (1981) stimulated a large number of responses both before publication and after. Many of the comments were generous. Several expressed broad agreement. A few correspondents went beyond such agreement to indicate their pleasure at finding an interpretation of the General Theory that clarified aspects that had puzzled them heretofore. Only one person expressed what I interpret as thorough disagreement, although the nature of the disagreement is not entirely clear from his comment, published as part of this exchange.