Staged Memory Scheduling: Achieving High Performance and Scalability in Heterogeneous Systems
Any type of content formally published in an academic journal, usually following a peer-review process.
When multiple processor (CPU) cores and a GPU integrated together on the same chip share the off-chip main memory, requests from the GPU can heavily interfere with requests from the CPU cores, leading to low system performance and starvation of CPU cores. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art application-aware memory scheduling algorithms are ineffective at solving this problem at low complexity due to the large amount of GPU traffic. A large and costly request buffer is needed to provide these algorithms with enough visibility across the global request stream, requiring relatively complex hardware implementations. This paper proposes a fundamentally new approach that decouples the memory controller's three primary tasks into three significantly simpler structures that together improve system performance and fairness, especially in integrated CPU-GPU systems. Our three-stage memory controller first groups requests based on row-buffer locality. This grouping allows the second stage to focus only on inter-application request scheduling. These two stages enforce high-level policies regarding performance and fairness, and therefore the last stage consists of simple per-bank FIFO queues (no further command reordering within each bank) and straightforward logic that deals only with low-level DRAM commands and timing. We evaluate the design trade-offs involved in our Staged Memory Scheduler (SMS) and compare it against three state-of-the-art memory controller designs. Our evaluations show that SMS improves CPU performance without degrading GPU frame rate beyond a generally acceptable level, while being significantly less complex to implement than previous application-aware schedulers. Furthermore, SMS can be configured by the system software to prioritize the CPU or the GPU at varying levels to address different performance needs.