Structure and Electronic Spectroscopy of Steps on GaAs(110) Surfaces
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Steps on GaAs(110) surfaces, with step-normal vectors parallel to , are studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Two possible orientations of the steps occur, with outward normal vectors of  or [00-1], which in simple bulk-terminated form have Ga (cations) or As (anions) on their edges, respectively. The latter type of step in n-type or undoped material is found to retain its bulk-terminated form. A band of states is observed extending out from the valence band, associated with the dangling bonds of the terminating As atoms. It is argued that compensation of the dangling bonds on the step edges is the driving force for the step structure, producing reconstruction of the step edges in certain cases.