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Cell regulation by the Apc protein Apc as master regulator of epithelia.
The adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) protein participates in many of the fundamental cellular processes that govern epithelial tissues: Apc is directly involved in regulating the availability of beta-catenin for transcriptional de-repression of Tcf/LEF transcription factors, it contributes to the stability of microtubules in interphase and mitosis, and has an impact on the dynamics of F-actin. Thus Apc contributes directly and/or indirectly to proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. This particular multifunctionality can explain why disruption of Apc is especially detrimental for the epithelium of the gut, where Apc mutations are common in most cancers. We summarise recent data that shed light on the molecular mechanisms involved in the different functions of Apc.