Characterization of a CMOS sensing core for ultra-miniature wireless implantable temperature sensors with application to cryomedicine
In effort to improve thermal control in minimally invasive cryosurgery, the concept of a miniature, wireless, implantable sensing unit has been developed recently. The sensing unit integrates a wireless power delivery mechanism, wireless communication means, and a sensing core—the subject matter of the current study. The current study presents a CMOS ultra-miniature PTAT temperature sensing core and focuses on design principles, fabrication of a proof-of-concept, and characterization in a cryogenic environment. For this purpose, a 100 μm × 400 μm sensing core prototype has been fabricated using a 130 nm CMOS process. The senor has shown to operate between −180 °C and room temperature, to consume power of less than 1 μW, and to have an uncertainty range of 1.4 °C and non-linearity of 1.1%. Results of this study suggest that the sensing core is ready to be integrated in the sensing unit, where system integration is the subject matter of a parallel effort.