Estimation and Management of Health and Safety
Until recently, companies neglected health, safety, and environmental risks. While managers care about the safety of their workers and the quality of the environment, they tended not to think of these effects and the company bore little or none of the consequences of their actions. If a worker was injured in a coal mine, there was another waiting for the job. If the river became polluted, those downstream could worry about it. The company could curse the poor quality of water it received while neglecting the water pollution it discharged. Largely as a result of these effects being 'external' to the firm, there were no systematic methods developed to treat them, even when they impacted the firm.