Information systems and the Internet have facilitated the creation of used product markets that
feature a dramatically wider selection, lower search costs, and lower prices than their brick-andmortar
counterparts do. The increased viability of these used product markets has caused concern
among content creators and distributors, notably the Book Publishers Association and Author’s
Guild, who believe that used product markets will significantly cannibalize new product sales.
However, this proposition, while theoretically possible, is based on speculation as opposed to
empirical evidence. In this paper, we empirically analyze the degree to which used products cannibalize
new product sales for books — one of the most prominent used product categories sold
online. To do this, we use a unique dataset collected from Amazon.com’s new and used book
marketplaces to measure the degree to which used products cannibalize new product sales. We
then use these estimates to measure the resulting first-order changes in publisher welfare and
Our analysis suggests that used books are poor substitutes for new books for most of Amazon’s
customers. The cross-price elasticity of new book demand with respect to used book prices is
only 0.088. Because of this only 16% of used book sales at Amazon cannibalize new book purchases.
The remaining 84% of used book sales apparently would not have occurred at Amazon’s
new book prices. Further, our estimates suggest that this increase in book readership from Amazon’s
used book marketplace increases consumer surplus by approximately $67.21 million annually.
This increase in consumer surplus, together with an estimated $45.05 million loss in publisher
welfare and a $65.76 million increase in Amazon’s profits, leads to an increase in total
welfare to society by approximately $87.92 million annually from the introduction of used book
markets at Amazon.com.