MRI assessment of cerebral blood flow after experimental traumatic brain injury combined with hemorrhagic shock in mice.

Secondary insults such as hypotension or hemorrhagic shock (HS) can greatly worsen outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). We recently developed a mouse combined injury model of TBI and HS using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model and showed that 90 minutes of HS can exacerbate neuronal death in hippocampus beneath the contusion. This combined injury model has three clinically relevant phases, a shock, pre hospital, and definitive care phases. Mice were randomly assigned to four groups, shams as well as a CCI only, an HS only, and a CCI+HS groups. The CCI and HS reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the hemisphere ipsilateral and contralateral to injury. Hemorrhagic shock to a level of ∼30 mm Hg exacerbated the CCI-induced CBF reductions in multiple ROIs ipsilateral to injury (hemisphere and thalamus) and in the hemisphere contralateral to injury (hemisphere, thalamus, hippocampus, and cortex, all P