Organizational Effectiveness as a Decision Making Process
Organizational effectiveness has been a subject of considerable interest to researchers ever since organizations began to play a major role in our society. In the early days of industrialization, and into the era of scientific management, organizational effectiveness (OE) was viewed as a simple, uni-dimensional concept generally measured by productivity and/o!' profits. Scientific management gave way to more humanistic approaches to management which added worker satisfaction, morale and opportunity fo!" need fulfillment to a growing list of OE indicators. More recently researchers have argued that OE must be assessed with respect to its impact on the family, on the community and society and even on the environment. The accelerating movement towards multiple constituencies, multiple dimensions, multiple indicator s (dependent variables) and multiple determinants (independent variab1es) of effectiveness has not allowed a clear definition of OE to emerge. This and other symposia, as well as recent books (Steers, 1977; Goodman and Pennings, 1977) have attempted to deal with these problems and further our understanding of OE.