State of the Art in Automation of Earthmoving, 2002
This paper provides an overview of recent progress in the automation related to earthmoving systems. While a previous survey  has comprehensively examined various aspects of earthmoving automation, here we discuss recent representative ideas and systems.
The discussion is divided based on the cycle of operation for any autonomous machine: sensing, planning, and execution. First, an automated machine must sense its own state and the world around it. Next it must use this information along with a description of a goal to be achieved to plan the next action to be taken. In some cases the mapping from sensing to action is direct, and, can take the form of a pre-determined control law. In other cases, deliberation, or the use of models is necessary. Finally, the action must be executed via the mechanism.
This paper starts with a brief summary of sensing technologies as they pertain to earthmoving. Next, it examines the various models used to determine control laws, or, as tools for deliberative planners. Of specific interest are models of machines and their interaction with the earth, an area that has seen some recent activity. Planning and discussed next and in conclusion a three recent systems are discussed.