Weakly Supervised Training of Semantic Parsers
We present a method for training a semantic parser using only a knowledge base and an unlabeled text corpus, without any individually annotated sentences. Our key observation is that multiple forms of weak supervision can be combined to train an accurate semantic parser: semantic supervision from a knowledge base, and syntactic supervision from dependencyparsed sentences. We apply our approach to train a semantic parser that uses 77 relations from Freebase in its knowledge representation. This semantic parser extracts instances of binary relations with state-of-the art accuracy, while simultaneously recovering much richer semantic structures, such as conjunctions of multiple relations with partially shared arguments. We demonstrate recovery of this richer structure by extracting logical forms from natural language queries against Freebase. On this task, the trained semantic parser achieves 80% precision and 56% recall, despite never having seen an annotated logical form.