report introduces the GHOSTS ((G)eneral HOSTS) framework, the purpose
of which is to create a high level of realism in cyber-warfare exercises
by establishing and building behaviorally accurate, autonomous
non-player characters (NPCs). The report outlines how the GHOSTS
framework accomplishes the creation of simulations in which NPCs
realistically represent a vast array of possible encounters and
outcomes. The report concludes with a discussion of a case study in
which the GHOSTS framework was used. Participants in the exercise
reported high levels of realism, which in turn correlated with higher
ratings for training value. These results indicate that the GHOSTS
framework can be used to create training of the highest quality,
effectively preparing cyber-warfare teams for success in real-world
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