Motivation in Foreign Language Learning: The Relationship between Classroom Activities, Motivation, and Outcomes in a University Language-Learning Environment
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In the study of academic motivation in a language-learning setting, motivation has traditionally been considered an independent variable. The present study treats it as both a dependent function of classroom activities and an independent predictor of study time, expected grade, and whether a student will continue to study the language. Six distinct motivational types are discussed: motivation about the language, motivation about the class, confidence, external motivation, whether the class feels required, and self-reported motivation. Motivation about the language is found to be of particular importance in predicting outcomes, along with fun activities and activities that promote language use about students’ own lives and interests.