Impact of Vehicle Automation on Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Siting and Energy Demand
This paper presents a method to characterize the impact of privately-owned autonomous electric vehicles on electric vehicle charger placement, distribution, utilization, and power demand. Using Seattle, WA as a case study, a least total cost optimization for charging station owner and driver costs is conducted for vehicle automation levels 0-3, 4, and 5. Moving from levels 0-3 to level 4 and level 5 automation reduces the peak electrical load for EV charging by approximately 31% and 68%, respectively. Moving from levels 0-3 to level 4 automation decreased the optimal number of chargers by 65%, lowered total cost by 46%. Moving from levels 0-3 automation to level 5 automation decreased the optimal number of chargers by 84% and total costs by 69%. Additional vehicle miles traveled and operating costs incurred by drivers for drop off and pick up were estimated with level 5 automation. The results suggest that highly automated vehicle technology used in privately-owned electric vehicles could reduce the cost of deployment for recharging infrastructure and reduce peak electrical demand associated with recharging.